Guided Writing/Coherence and Cohesion

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Coherence and Cohesion - Was ist das?

Wie schon kurz erklärt, soll ein Text inhaltlich zusammenpassen. Einzelne Sätze werden durch linking words (Konjunktionen) miteinander verbunden.

Wer immer wieder zwar sprachlich richtige, aber (zu) kurze Sätze nach dem Muster S - V - O erstellt, ohne diese sinnvoll zu verbinden, bekommt in diesem Teil nur wenige Punkte.

How to use linking words

Last week. It was a sunny Sunday. A sky without any clouds. The perfect weather for an amazing and two hours taking open-air-concert of “The Rising Son of New Orleans”.

I had checked my bag. Camera, although it isn’t wasn't allowed. Something to eat and to drink. My head. And enough money to buy his new CD.

→ Ein Text, der fast nur aus Ellipsen und Parataxen besteht, wirkt zwar schnell und wie eine Live-Reportage, ist aber doch schwer zu lesen.

Last Sunday it was sunny. The sky was without any clouds. It was perfect weather for an amazing open-air-concert of "The Rising Son of New Orleans".

I had checked my bag, Camera, although it wasn't allowed to take one. I had something to eat and to drink. And I took enough money to buy his new CD.

→ S - V - O - zu jedem Satz gehört mindestens ein Subjekt und ein Verb. Besser als die Häufung von was und had wären andere, abwechslungsreichere Tätigkeitswörter.

Last Sunday the sun was shining and the sky was without any clouds. So it was perfect weather for an amazing open-air-concert of "The Rising Son of New Orleans".

After I had packed something to eat and to drink and enough money to buy his new CD I checked my bag again: there was the camera, although it wasn't allowed to take one.

→ Aus sechs kurzen Sätzen wurden drei längere, die durch Konjunktionen und inhaltliche Bezüge besser zusammenpassen.


When you join sentences together, use conjunctions - like however, although, moreover …!
Don't repeat "and" and "but" all the time.

However, don't start every second sentence with "therefore".

Interactive exercises

Pocahontas (conjunctions)

Put in the conjunctions:

After the English had settled in North America, John Smith began exploring the new country.

While he was walking through the forest he encountered a beautiful girl, Pocahontas.

Initially she was distrustful of him, but her grandmother liked him.

Eventually she teaches him to hunt.

She is set to be married to Tsu'Tey, a great warrior, but a serious man who Neytiri doesn't like at all.

??? - Who is Neytiri? - the story goes on but the characters have different names:


Put in the conjunctions:

As the settlers prepare to attack, Jake is blamed by the Na'vi and sentenced to death.

Just before they kill him, they settlers arrive. Chief Eytucan is killed. John sustains injuries from Colonel Quaritch who is then shot with arrows.

Neytiry risks her life to save Jake.

Jake and Neytiri finally have each other and the two cultures resolve their differences.

Connecting two sentences with a conjunction

Put in the conjunctions:

1. It was very hot so I opened the window.

2. I opened the window because it was hot.

3. I wanted to phone you but I didn't have your number.

4. I've been studying English but I'm not getting better.

5. Shall we meet at home or in town?

6. We met at home and (we) learned for the test.

7. They like films so Mr Scharwies shows them more often.

8. I usually don't study much but now I want to do more.

Connecting two sentences with a conjunction


Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the KEYWORD given.
Do not change the KEYWORD. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.

1.She wasn't very rich. She gave money to the beggar.ALTHOUGH

   Although she wasn't() very rich she gave mponey to the beggar.

2. He left early. He wanted to arrive on time. SO THAT

   He left early so that he arrived() in time.

3. You have to put the alarm on. If not, it won't work. UNLESS

    Unless you put() the alarm on, it won't work.

4. I don't earn a big salary. But if I did, I wouldn't buy a car.EVEN IF

    Even if I earned() a big salary, I wouldn't buy a car.

5. Take a sandwich. There might be no restaurant.IN CASE

   Take a sandwich in case there might()be no restaurant.

6. There was a lot of noise. He managed to sleep.DESPITE

    Despite () being there a lot of noise, he managed to sleep.

7. Sue likes Opera. Joe prefers jazz. (They have different tastes.)WHEREAS

    Sue likes operea whereas Joe prefers () jazz.

8. The weather was bad. They enjoyed the trip.EVEN THOUGH

    Even though the waether was() bad they enjoyed the trip.

9. He had the flu. He went to work.IN SPITE OF

    In spite of () having the flu he went to work.

Change your Conjunctions

Match the synonyms.

Because of that For this reason Due to
At last ... Finally Eventually
After that consequentially
Moreover Additionally Besides
Meanwhile During this time
Then Secondly after a few hours
however in contrast on the contrary

Linking words

Tick the right linking word.

1. You can come to the meeting ______ you don't say anything. (!so that)(as long as) (!while) (!until)

2. I'm not leaving ______ I get an apology from you. (!so that) (!as long as) (!while) (until)

3. I came here ______ you could give me an explanation. (so that) (!as long as) (!while) (!until)

4. Patrick is very tall ______ Smurf is very short. (!so that) (!as long as) (while) (!as if)

5. You look ______ you've seen a ghost. (!so that) (!as long as) (!while) (as if)

6. I study for the exam today ______ I don't have to go tomorrow. (so that) (!as long as) (!until) (!as if)

7. You look ______ you haven't eaten for a week. (!so that) (!as long as) (!until)(as if)

8. I came early ______ I could talk to you privately. (so that) (!as long as) (!until) (!as if)

2. Tick the right linking word.

1. ______ I don't think she's perfect for the job, she's certainly better qualified than Steve. (!so that) (while) (!until) (as if)

2. Are you OK? You look ______ you have a problem. (!so that)(!as long as)(!while)(!until)(as if)

3. I don't mind if you go out for lunch ______ you're back for the meeting at two.(!so that)(as long as)(!while)(!until)(!as if)

4. ______ the job is very interesting, it's also very badly paid.(!so that)(!as long as)(while)(!until)(!as if)

5. We'll go to the mountains on Saturday ______ it doesn't rain.(!so that)(as long as)(!while)(!until)(!as if)

6. The winters here are very cold ______ the summers are very hot.(!so that)(!as long as)(while)(!until)(!as if)

7. You can write the report when you want ______ it's ready by the end of the month.(!so that)(as long as)(!while)(!until)(!as if)

8. It looks ______ the government has got a lot of problems.(!so that)(!as long as)(!while)(!until)(as if)

3. Tick the right linking word.

1. I want Mary to be in charge ______ I get back from holiday.(!so that)(!as long as)(!while)(until)(!as if)

2. ______ I don't approve of what you did, I'm not going to punish you for it.(!so that)(!as long as)(while)(!until)(!as if)

3. I'm learning English ______ I can get a better job.(so that)(!as long as)(!while)(!until)(!as if)

See also