Relative pronouns

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Wenn Du etwas näher erklären willst, kannst du einen Relativsatz verwenden. Er wird innerhalb des Satzes eingeschoben und durch ein Relativpronomen (Relative Pronoun) eingeleitet:

Nessie lives in Loch Ness. Nessie is a monster.
Nessie   who lives in Loch Ness   is a monster.
Loch Ness is a lake. Loch Ness is in Scotland.
Loch Ness   which is in Scotland   is a lake.

Relativsätze werden mit den Pronomen who (bei Personen), bzw. which (bei Sachen) gebildet. Die Word Order S - V - O gilt auch im Relativsatz.

Bei Definitionen einer Sache oder Person ist auch der Relativsatz in der 3. Person singular! Denkt an das he,she,it -s!


Nessie   whose head is small and whose body is very long   is a monster.
Nessie is a monster   whose head is small and whose body is very long.

Durch das Relativpronomen whose (dessen, deren) kann man anzeigen, dass jemanden etwas gehört (Besitzfall). Es ist bei Sachen und Personen gleich. Es entspricht dem deutschen "dessen oder "deren".

Contact Clauses

Contact clauses sind Relativsätze, in denen man das Relativpronomen einfach weglassen kann:

Nessie   who/that I saw at Loch Ness   is is a famous monster.
Look! Here’s a photo   which/that I took there.

  • Folgt nach who/which/that ein Name, Nomen oder ein Pronomen, darf man das Relativpronomen weglassen.
  • Folgt nach who/which/that ein Verb, ist das Relativpronomen notwendig!

Contact Clauses - Exercises

Interaktive Übungen

Move the words into the gaps:

1. A caravan is a house which has got wheels.

2. Neighbours are people who live near you.

3. A camera is a thing which takes photos.

4. Horses are animals which you can ride.

5. An aunt is a person who is your mother's sister.

6. Friends are other boys and girls who you like.

7. Wales is a country which starts with the letter "W".

8. Holidays are the times which you spend away from home.

9. South is the direction which is the sun's position at noon.

Advanced exercise

Put the words into the gaps

Loch Ness is a lake which () has got a monster in it. (maybe!).

Around the lake there live many Scots who () are fishermen.

In every weather which () can be really bad they go out fishing in their boats which () are quite old and small.

They fish all day which () can be really long in summer.

There are some people who () see Nessie every now and then.

An old fisherman told me a story which () I didn't believe first:

When he was young which () was really long ago Nessie came right to his boat which () was going up and down in the waves.

The she looked at him for a long time which () seemed endless and dived (also:dove) down into the depths again.

who, which or whose?

Move the words into the gaps:

"Have you ever heard about Loch Ness which is the most famous lake in Scotland?"

"You mean the lake whose monster is so famous".

One day a reporter who came to Loch Ness looked for the monster everywhere.

He went with a sailing boat which he got from a fisher around the whole lake.

Nessie's body which is blue with red spots was seen in the water.

The lake whose length is over 36 km is very deep.

In the deepest parts there is a cave which is really long.

Put in who, which or whose:

One day the Loch Ness Monster which ()lived deep in the water of Loch Ness came out of the water. It went to the castle which() was very old .

The knights who() saw the monster tried to catch it. But they didn't have a chance because the castle which() was ten meters high was smaller than the monster, so the monster distroyed the castle. It was the castle of King Michel whose() daughter had died five years before. The Monster which() looked very frightening, broke all the walls down. The guards who() were wearing black uniforms ran away.

But one lonely man whose() family was very poor tried to fight against the big monster. He shot into the air with the gun which() he had found at the ground. He shot all the ammo to shock the monster.

But the monster was so big that he ate him. The man whose() gun was still in his hands shot the monster from the inside. He came back out of the monster and lived happily ever after.


Jonas Wolfram, Joshua Porzler (6d)

I saw it with my own eyes

A woman saw a robbery yesterday. This is what she said to the police officer who interviewed her. Complete the sentences with who, which, or whose.

"I saw the robbery which() took place this morning. I was standing outside the bank which() they robbed. The first man who () came out of the bank had a gun in his hand. The robber who () was with him had a bag in his hand. The bag which() he was carrying was full of money. The man whose () face I can remember best was very tall. They drove away in a car whose () number I can't remember. It was a white van who() was probably stolen. The man who() was waiting in the car had a blue wooly hat on."

Lost & Found

It is the end of the school year and there is a lot of lost things in a cupboard at school. Complete this dialogue with who, whose or who's (who is).

Jane: Whose is this jacket?

Kayne: I think it's Mandy's.

Jane: Who is Mandy?

Kayne: She's the girl who lives in the same street as Luke.

Jane: And who is Luke? I don't know him either.

Kayne: Yes, you do. He's the boy Whose moped is always parked outside Rebecca's house.

Jane: Oh, of course. - And whose are these shoes?

Kayne: I don't know whose they are.

relative adverbs

Sometimes you modify a noun not with a relative clause but with an adverbial clause:

School is the place where you waste most of your life.

These are the times when Jannis lost his initiative.

That is the reason why Jamie refused to come.

I wondered why she refused the invitation.

This is the place where I was born.

who, which, whose + where, when

Move the words into the gaps:

I looked in all places where where Nessie usually was.

It was dark when I came home.



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