Even if the "dark"' Middle Ages in Christian Europe was not as backward as often claimed, the high culture of Islamic countries was amazing.
- writings, knowledge from ancient times
- trade with Africa, India, China
- promotion of science and art
- tolerance towards "book believers"
provided for a rich culture, which was often adopted by the crusaders.
The crusaders encountered many things in the Orient that they did not yet know. Often they did not invent their own words for new things, but adopted the already existing Arabic word. Many terms show the influence of Arabic on the English language:
Arabic, Latin or Greek?
Some words originated in Greek, were translated into Arabic and found their way into the English language:
Sort the loan words after their original language:
Sort the following Arabic loan words after topics:
|Spice / Fruit
counting and calculating
The merchant and mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci from Pisa triggered a mathematical revolution with his book "Liber abaci". He noticed:
The numerical values are the same in both tasks. There are two advantages to written arithmetic with Arabic numerals:
With the Roman numerals, there is no numeral sign for the numerical value zero.
In the spoken form, Roman numerals, like Arabic numerals, are structured according to the ten system. In the written form, however, the Roman numerals lack the division into "ones", "tens", "hundreds", "twos" and "threes". hundreds, etc.
I can't believe this:
crusader = Kreuzzügler, Kreuzritter
crusade = Kreuzzug
crusade = religious war to free the Holy Land (= Jerusalem, Palestine)
Why - because pilgrims wanted to visit the place where Jesus had lived.